CRUSHING AND SCREENING PLANTS

CRUSHING AND SCREENING PLANTS
CRUSHING & SCREENING PLANTS

CRUSHING AND SCREENING PLANTS

BUNKERS

They are temporary storage chambers used for the stocking of materials/ores within the industrial facility. They are usually manufactured in steel. The bunker, which can be prismatic or cylindrical, is used to ensure smooth flow or to regulate between crusher/siefe capacities. They are covered with wear plates for the protection of worn surfaces. There must be a remover under the bunker.   While the upper part of the bunker is sized to meet the calculated capacity,  the lower part of the bunker is sized by narrowing in accordance with the feed mouth of the extractor at angles that will not prevent or block the flow of the malzeme/ore  . Against blockages, compressed air bursts, vibro motors  can also be supplied  to sloping surfaces.

1. MAIN FEED BUNKERS It is the first chamber where the material/ore from the furnace is discharged. Their size varies depending on the capacity of the feeder. They are usually manufactured as steel construction in a straight-up prismatic structure. The installation of wear plates along the surface with  the feeder increases the bunker life.

2. INTERMEDIATE BUNKERS They are used in-house to compensate for the capacity differences that may occur between  the equipment or in conjunction with machines (taper crusher, etc.) where proper feeding is required.  Generally under the intermediate bunker, there is a vibro or tape feeder. The equipment for these feeders with rev adjustment can be properly fed. They are manufactured as steel construction with square or circular sections. On surfaces with slopes from the outside, vibromotors or explosives can be placed to prevent material adhesion and clogging.

3. PRODUCT BUNKERS (Silos) They are the chambers used as intermediate stock for loading plant final or intermediate products onto trucks. Under the silo are bunker covers  used for truck loading. Bunker covers can be opened with  hydraulic or pneumatic pistons, either in one piece or on both sides in 2 parts. Thus, it allows the material/ore in the silo to empty. They are manufactured as steel construction with square or circular section. Abrasion plates are covered on their inner surfaces, especially on sloping surfaces. On surfaces with slopes from the outside, vibromotors or explosives can be placed to prevent material adhesion and clogging.

 4. FEEDERS Feeders are manufactured for two purposes: large and thin material supply. Feeders for large material are linear vibrating, quick-return and apron feeders; feeders produced for fine material are vibro and band feeder types. A grid can be mounted on the feeders to extract large rocks, and the grill can be installed with hydraulic tipping system if desired.

4.1. COMMERCIAL FEEDERS  Are used to feed rock etc. to primary crushers. Vibrating feeders have a durable body. They have a  durable chamber and chassis that can handle the impact of the run of mine material discharged  into it. Bunkers used on vibrating feeders  can go from 10 cubic meters to 50 cubic meters. The vibration body sits on a very sturdy chassis with a sufficient number of spiral springs. They are often used for feeding dry and non-sticky materials. Vibration is achieved by the unbalanced mass generated by rotating the single or double  vibromotor or eccentric shaft at high revs, jumping on the springs at certain periods. Vibration is linear. Vibrating feeders have very little maintenance, very little operating costs, simple drive system and high capacity. They are used in the feed of wet and non-sticky material.

 4.2. QUICK RETURN FEEDERS Vargel feeders are based on the advancement of material fed to the feeder table with the crank-biennial arm mechanism that translates circular motion into linear motion. It should be covered with wear plates as there will be constant movement on the feeder table. The drive system has been made by some manufacturers with hydraulic pistons and a serious automation system is needed in piston types. Used for damp and sticky material/ore. Due to the variability of the load on it, it can cause fractures in the crank-biel arm or failures in the hydraulic system. They are expensive and laborious equipment. However, they can be preferred in a narrow area due to the fact that they are leaning machines.

4.3. APRON FEEDERS (PALLET FEEDER) Primary trainers are heavy-duty feeders that can be used in the most difficult conditions for material nutrition. The walking set used in tracked machines is driven by a low-speed planetary gearbox or a partial shaft or final drive crate reducer. The drive shaft is connected from the center of the double-sided drive gear. With the drive gear rotation, the apron  takes the material/ore on the feeder by executing the pallet chains and therefore the pallets. The pallet is  difficult to wear because it is a high-manganese casting. Therefore, they are used in the most difficult conditions. Under the Apron Feeder, there can be a conveyor that collects debris from materials that stick to it on the turn of the pallet  . There is a need for high space along with the size of the pallet rotation diameter and the cleaning conveyor. Therefore, it is preferred in high capacity (400 TPH and above) facilities.

4.4. VIBRO FEEDERS Are  a sufficient number of pan feeders placed on a spiral spring used under intermediate bunkers.  Vibro feeders are usually  driven by frequency converter vibro motors, and the speed adjustment is electrically made with the help of  these frequency converters. The feeder pan is covered with wear plates against abrasions. The most important factor affecting the Feeder Capacity  are  the size and vibromotors.  In cases where the desired capacitor cannot be taken, the capacity increase can be achieved by increasing the pan slope, but when this process is carried out, the slope on which the material will stand on the pan should not be exceeded.

4.5. BELT FEEDERS  Are conveyor belt feeders used under intermediate bunkers. The rotation of the tape tyre is  provided by  the low-speed high-torque reducer that turns the drum. The gearbox speed can again  be changed with the help of frequency converter. It is the insertion of a needle or linear cover between the feeder and the bunker to reduce possible tearing or load on the tape feeder  . Feeding capacity depends on the width and speed of the feeder. They are used in conjunction with machines where regular feeding is essential, such as taper crusher.

5. CRUSHERS Crushing is the first stage of the size reduction process. It is done in order to free one of the different minerals contained in the material/ore from the other, to provide the appropriate size or surface area for the process or the dimension suitable for its intended use. Forces applied in crushing; impact, compression or crushing, cutting and friction forces. The machines used for crushing are called crushers. They are mechanical tools that apply pressure, impact and cutting force to grains, reducing them to smaller grain sizes. Crushing machines are especially in development in terms of design features such as product characteristics, machine costs and energy use. For this reason, machines of a wide variety of shapes, structures and sizes are used in crushing and ore preparation processes. Crushing is applied to grain sizes between 2000-5 mm. Large crushing to breakage made between 200-10 cm; The breakage made between 100-5 mm is called fine crushing. Jawed, conical, impact and hammer crushers are the most commonly used crusher types in crushing-screening and ore preparation plants. The most commonly used crushers in the industry are:

5.1. JAW CRUSHERS Are primary and  /or secondary crushers  designed to break all kinds of materials, regardless of  their hardness and adhesiveness. They are crushers that break the material by compressing and blasting it through the elliptical movement of the moving jaw between the fixed and moving jaw.  It feeds from the top with the material/ore feeder. The eccentrate rotary drive shaft rinses the moving jaw to crush the material with a fixed jaw. Jaw crushers are driven by a belt-pulley that is moved by an engine. There are wide uses in the aggregate and mineral processing industry. With its settings, high performance and efficiency made with  the help of hydraulic system, primary crushers are the most preferred primary crushers.  Primary jaw crushers  can also be used as secondary jaw crushers.  The feed oral openness of secondary crushers  is smaller than that of primary crushers. In order to carry out uninterrupted and continuous feeding, the oral openness must be selected according to the material to be processed and be larger than it. Primary jaw crushers can reduce size by 3-5 times. In other words, a jaw crusher with a feed input of 400 mm can reduce the material size up to 80 mm on average with a reduction rate of 5 times.

Parts of Jaw Crusher :

1- FIXED BODY: From welded hair construction, fixed jaw pad and adjustment block pad are manufactured in box construction from hair material of sufficient thickness and a rigid structure is obtained. The lower caps of the steel casting side bearings are welded to the body.

2- MOVING JAW BLOCK (PIN): The moving jaw block is made of steel casting as a mono block. Since the block works in heavy operating conditions with impact, it is manufactured in the profile and construction required by these conditions. The moving jaw is tightened  with pull bolts and conical tightening pieces.

3- CRUSHING JAWS AND PRIMERS: Crusher jaws and linings are made of Mn or Chrome alloy steel casting. The jaw and linings are designed to be used by turning them upside down and can be used as a result of wear on one side.

4- FLYWHEELS: It is made of peak casting and determined by eccentric mile kamali taper passing  .

5- EXCENTRIC SHAFT GROUP: The eccentric shaft group consists of eccentric shaft bearing bearings and labyrinth seals. Bearings made of forged steel, which are resistant to eccentric shaft chromium-molybdenum alloy pulses, are stoned in the desired tolerances. Bearings are heavy with a playful roller (Self aligning)

6- TENSIONER: Pitman tensioner tensioner consists of tension bar, tensioner rubber wedge cap and tightening nuts, and instead of a stretching spring assembly, a rubber wedge is used, which is fixed with experience where it is more useful.

7- JAW ADJUSTMENT DEVICE: Adjustment block and adjustment boards are used for jaw adjustment. In this way, a simpler, more convenient and long-lasting adjustment system is obtained. Jaw adjustment is provided by means of various thickness adjustment plates available.

8- SUPPORT PLATE (TOGGLE PLATE): In order not to destroy the jaw of any part that will fall between the jaws (such as iron), the support plate is made of GG 18 peak casting of the appropriate thickness as a result of experience in order to act as insurance by breaking in case of excessive strain. Disassembleable support plate slots are available  on  both the body and pitman to prevent wear  of the  body and pitman and can be easily replaced when worn.

9- LUBRICATION: Both pitman bearings and side bearings are greased with grease gun  . Domestic Types of Most Used Jaw Breakers : * K.03 – 90  Jaw Crusher (90 Jaw) : With a capacity of 150-170 tons/hour in limestone, In basalt stone, it operates with a capacity of 100-120 tons/hour. 90′s Jaw Crusher measures 900mm x 650mm and operates with a 75kw engine. * K.07 – 110  Jaw Crusher (110 Jaw) : With a capacity of 250-300 tons/hour in limestone,  In basalt stone, it operates with a capacity of 175-225 tons/hour.

IMPACT BREAKERS

Since there is no crushing or compression process in the crushing principle of impact crushers, the stones that come out are cubic. The difference between broken stones in the impact crusher and broken stones in another type of crusher is clearly visible. Research has shown that cubic material is 50% more wear-resistant on highways and increases strength in concrete. Broken stones are on average the same cubic structure and do not have tension, weak or cracked spots on them. Since the cubic material is angular and the surface is rough, the binding feature is high. In the impact crusher, it is usually preferable to return the remaining material on the siee to the crusher instead of increasing the rotor speed in order to achieve a high reduction rate. Thus, excessive dust material is released in the product and excess wear of crusher units is prevented. In impact crushers, the crushing rate can be reduced up to 9 times. In other words, impact crushers fed 400 mm material can reduce size up to 45mm.

PRIMER IMPACT BREAKERS

The crushing speed is very high and is used as the first crusher. Especially the limestone type is used for soft stones. They are very high rotor crushers that operate with high capacity in medium hardness and low silica ratio materials, shrinking and cubic ratio. They are used for breaking large-sized stones.

As the primary crusher, it can provide a higher rate of fine material output compared to jaw crushers. In this way,  they  can relieve the load of the secondary crusher or  provide material output at the desired grain size without the need for secondary crusher. To increase durability and machine life, the rotor is made of special steel casting, while pallets and crushing plates are made of special alloy high manganese steel. The crusher body consists of two parts and can be opened with hydraulic system. In this way, worn parts can be accessed much more easily, replacement of worn parts and maintenance of the machine can be done easily.  General Features of Primary Impact Crushers :ü Robust Body Structure ü High reduction power ü Obtaining cubic product with high crushing speed ü High reliability, performance and efficiency ü Changeable Complete Alloy Inner Primer Design ü Hydraulic Adjustment Units ü Easy operation, repair and maintenance ü Low operating cost

SECONDARY IMPACT BREAKERS

Secondary Conventional type Impact Crushers are secondary type crushers that easily lower the material broken by the jaw crusher to the size of asphalt or concrete aggregate and provide material output in sizes of 0-25 mm  . The crushing process in these crushers is repeated repeatedly when the striking pallets on the rotor hit the stone and toss it into the crushing rods that make up the crusher ceiling. Since the material is broken from its weak point, a solid and cubic-looking product is obtained. With their high capacities and reduction rates, cubic-shaped aggregate productions and low initial investment costs,  they are  the most suitable secondary crushers that drink medium hardness adhesive furnace material such as limestone.

REVERSE BREAKERS

 Reversible crusher, which is one of the impact crushers, is used in the fields of mandenism, construction, quarrying, especially in high capacity facilities. Tertiary crushers are produced as an alternative to vertical shaft crushers and are used to obtain 0-5 mm of material (sand) in medium hardness materials. The ability to feed up to 70 mm of material is the main feature that is separated from the vertical shaft crushers. The process of crushing the material by hitting the pandules of the double-sided rotating rotor at high speed takes place. Thanks to the adjustable outlet oral openness, the desired size product can be obtained.

Thanks to the special design multiplication plates and high rotor speed, abrasions are low, dust or sand is high. Fully opened hydraulic covers are used and are very easy to maintain. The initial investment cost is quite low. General Features of Tertiary Crushers :ü  High dust, sand ratio ü Secondary, tertiary and sand machine use ü thanks to its special interior design high capacity and concrete based material production ü Chrome or high manganese pallets ü Heat treated durable rotor ü Hydraulic cover opening system

CONICAL BREAKERS

Conical crushers are designed to break hard and a corrosive brook and quarry materials such as granite, basalt and andesite. It is used as secondary and tertiary crusher. The principle of operation of taper crushers is to break the materials with the effect of compression, cutting and bending. It offers low dust and wear rates as they break the material by compressing it. Thanks to the long-lasting wear parts, the crushing process lasts longer. In addition, operating costs are low as maintenance and repair operations can be easily carried out on the crusher.

Since the crushing process is carried out between conical surfaces, the crusher is also called "cone crusher". Both in terms of size and structure, many different shapes are found today. In general, there are two main types: "play national" and "fixed national".

SCREENS

Screening is the process of separating the broken material according to its dimensions. All crushed screening plants are absolutely needed for a sym elk. There are many sizes of sieves according to the need. The job of elimination is more of a lay-off than a parsing. All particles are stimulated by the same amount of energy, but since their weight and size are different, smaller particles go under the sief faster. Serme is a mandatory prerequisition for parsing; in order to get rid of the thinnest particles in a short time, the formation of laying on the sief panel should be ensured immediately. The remaining coarse under-siex particles are passed down using the longest possible siewind size.

CONVENTIONAL SCREENS Are the most common sieves in crushing-screening plants. Sief vibration is usually achieved by the irritation of the  eccentric shaft, which is inserted with special bearings placed on the sief body sheets  . Again, it is  driven by the belt-pulley system with the eccentric shaft electric  motors located in the body center between 13°-15° on  2-gauly or 3-gauded spring sets that usually press on 4 groups  . Sieves panels are arranged on the same rack as the sieves slope. Panels can be made of polyurethane, rubber or special braided steel St 70 wire. Rubber panel, polyurethane panel and steel wire are used respectively according to the degree of ausphurtation of the fed material. Due to the impact damping feature of rubber panels, it lasts longer. Steel sieive wires, on the other hand, are hard and more fragile, so they have a small lifespan. Depending on the material fed to the hand and the humidity, panel selection becomes important. Cr-Ni coated steel wires are preferred for adhesive materials.

 GRILLED SCREENS

Such siees are also used to bypass unwanted material to enter the system when necessary, or to classify material of different sizes that is broken. Bypass Siees (Gridded Siegs) to increase capacity, they ensure that they do not enter the secondary crusher by bypassing the material that is sufficiently examined after the Primary Crusher and is not desirable   to enter the system. In grided sieve, as with conventional sieve, there is a separate electric motor, belt/pulley system, eccentric shaft placed in the sieve body with special bearings, as well as an eccentric weight at both ends of the shaft, making circular vibrations.

BANANA SCREENS

They are usually used as product apples. Banana sieves, which are common in high capacity facilities, are named in this way because the shelves in them make different angles and the panel formations are banana-shaped when viewed from the cross section. Since the panel rack at the sieves feeding point is at a steeper angle, it is quickly ensured that the fine malzing passes to the lower floors. It is aimed to lay the malzing from the middle panel group, to end the complete separation by having the last panel group at a more lean angle, and in this way, the rack angles are designed at different angles. They are usually top-driven sieives with mechanisms that provide elliptical movement. The sief mechanism is driven by a belt pulley or snow shaft with the help of an electric motor. The vibration mechanism is determined on the beams above the center of gravity to ensure optimum vibration to the sieve body  . By driving the mechanism, the material fed by its effect on its slope is eliminated by making elliptical movements.

WASHING SCREENS

The screening operation can be done dry or wet. Washing sieves used in wet screening are laid on the sieves panels with the effect of vibration, while the sprinklers on the sieves are also separated from unwanted sludge or empurites on the grain. These siees can be made inclined or flat. In cases where it is desirable to have a high capacity but the material is not too dirty, washing can usually be done in sloping siees. However, flat sieves are used if it is desired to clean the malzing on the siege by standing under the sprinkler for longer. Washing Sieve mechanisms can be done with base-driven vibro motors, as in conventional sieve, with belt-pulley or snow shaft, special bearings and eccentric shafts placed in the sieve body, providing vibration on the spring.

CONVEYORS

They are continuous means of transportation that are used in various load and material transportation. Among the places of use; systems used for carrying luggage in airlines, transporting grain in silos , transporting coal and mines in mines, and transmitting machine parts in assembly production lines in factories can be listed. Movement of conveyors running between loading and unloading points; gravitational force is provided by manpower, animal, vibration or motor-powered belts, chains and cables.

 

BELT CONVEYORS

Loads are carried on tapes made of rubber, tarpaulin, steel or wire mesh, which are moved by an engine. The number of engine speeds is reduced by means of a gearbox and the movement is made from the drive pulley at the arrival end of the conveyor, allowing the loads to be pulled by means of the belt. This is mostly the type of conveyor in the storage of goods and luggage handling systems. Through such conveyors, mineral ores can be transported cheaply to very long distances. Escalator stairs used for human transport are examples of this type. If thousands of tons of bulk material are to be transferred per hour, the use of tape conveil is the inevitable option.  Today, in mines, iron and steel mills, thermal power plants, ore, coal, lime, synergistic materials, the  main carrier element  in the manipulation of the material is the banded convections. The  history of tape convelopers is not very old. Tape convedes, which first appeared in 1830, spread rapidly all over the world, especially after improved tape quality and the introduction of triple guide reels.  Today, 20,000 tons per hour (1,000 truckloads per hour) can be transported  to a distance of approximately 50 Km. with material banded conveyors. Moreover, the cost of this transport is ten times cheaper than the cost of transporting by truck. The  materials to be transported with a tape convect vary a lot. Very fine-grained powder, coercive coal, stone, etc. can all be transported extremely safely with  a banded convect. The cost of energy, labor and maintenance is extremely low. Since improved tape quality  can even carry corrosive, corrosive materials and hot materials, chemicals, corrosive materials, fragile and crunchy materials can all be transported with tape conved.  Another feature of taped convections is the ability to adapt to terrain conditions. Therefore, they can travel 40-50 Km by passing comfortably through the bends, mountains and rivers that rise by turning. Trucks can barely travel on 8% battered terrain, while  35% of battered terrains can easily transport materials with banded convectors. The annual maintenance cost on belt conveyors is 2% of the investment cost. It is necessary to add the cost of changing tape to this maintenance cost. The annual cost of changing bands is around 5% of the investment amount. The band life is 15 years for the transportation of normal non-corrosive materials,  and the band life is 5 years for the transport of sharp-edged rock, stone, etc. The  most important maintenance cost in a convect is the cost of cleaning the debris that occurs during the transport. The easiest way to prevent this is to accurately determine the roller ranges in accordance with the material during the design phase (see Table 1). The most important cause of the debris is sagging between the rollers of the conveyor belt, which should be no more than 3%. To prevent sagging, it may come to mind to fill the gap between the reels with sheet metal. However, in this case, the band life will decrease due to friction and the energy cost will increase. It can only be used to transport light but valuable materials like in the food industry.

Reliable and rational engineering solutions for any aggregate size-reduction projects, upgrade existing plants and supply individual machines; always following the technological developments.

Our crushing & screening plants are perfect for rock crushing in stone quarries and mines.

We manufacture different types of construction and mining equipment: stone crushingscreening, washing machines.

Our crushing and screening plant is an advanced, automated and highly integrated crushing plant production unit, with vibrating feeder, jaw crusher, cone crusher, impact crusher, vibrating screen, and belt conveyor. Capacity range 50-600 TPH, final product range 0 – 70 millimeters.